A car is made up of a few dozen small assemblies and each assembly is made up of different parts. The quality of parts and components determines the quality of the assembly, and the quality of the assembly determines the quality of the entire vehicle. In a sense, the quality of components determines the quality of automotive products. What is the status of China's auto parts industry?
At the beginning of 2009, commissioned by the Industry Coordination Department of the National Development and Reform Commission, the China Automotive Engineering Society issued a comprehensive questionnaire and a technical questionnaire to conduct a survey on the state of the auto parts industry and its product R&D capabilities. The scope of the survey is focused on the key production companies in various specialized fields of domestic auto parts, as well as five major assemblies and their parts and components such as engines, transmissions, axles, steering systems, and brake systems. After comprehensive investigation of the investigation, there are two conclusions:
1. There is a lack of systematic planning for the transformation and upgrading of auto parts industry and policy measures by relevant state agencies. Although the "Automotive Industry Policy" in 1994 and 2004 and the "Auto Industry Adjustment and Revitalization Plan" in 2009 repeatedly referred to the research and development, autonomy and industrialization of automotive core component technology, mergers and acquisitions of parts and components companies, and parts and components. Product export, etc., but lack of systematic strategic planning and policy design for the process of auto parts industry transformation and product upgrading, mainly the Chinese automobile industry's strategic objectives, implementation steps, standards and regulations, policies and measures. The most critical of these is that the decision-makers do not consider auto parts as an industry.
2. The lack of core technologies has become a bottleneck restricting the development of auto parts industry. Due to historical reasons, China's spare parts industry is in a scattered state, especially the lack of core technologies. Foreign-invested enterprises, with decades of technological accumulation and research and development of new technologies, have already possessed strong technical strengths. In the core automotive component technology, they firmly occupy the commanding heights of market competition. The absence of core technologies makes China It is an entire vehicle company or an auto parts manufacturer. Basically, it has not been able to get rid of the dependence on foreign investors. Taking 2007 as an example, the proportion of foreign-funded enterprises in the production of automotive EFI systems, engine management systems (EMS), ABS, micro-motors, and airbags was 100%, 100%, 91%, 97%, and 69%, respectively. . Although the relevant authorities of the country have noticed the seriousness of this issue, many media are also clamoring that Chinese cars are big and not strong. Many companies have also invested capital to recruit R & D centers and research institutes, but objectively, due to " Each tune has its own tone, and each blows its own number. No matter whether it is technical talent or R&D funds, no effort has been made. As of today, the lack of core technology has not changed significantly. Of the more than 5,000 automobile parts and components enterprises above designated size in China, more than 1,200 are foreign-invested enterprises, but these wholly foreign-owned and joint ventures, which possess core technologies, have become increasingly dominant in the holding of technology and capital.
Taken together, the technical resources and financial resources of human resources and high-tech products are the first three important factors that restrict companies' ability to improve product development.
It has been nearly 60 years since the development of China's automobile industry. The joint venture policy of market-for-technology cooperation has been implemented for nearly 30 years. Why has Japan and South Korea used less than 10 years to complete the road? After decades of decades, China has failed to realize its original intention? To answer this question, we must look back at the process of the start-up and development of Chinese parts and components companies.
In the 1960s, in the middle and western regions of China, there was a small town named Shiyan in the depths of the Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains. According to administrative divisions, Shiyan is located in the Liyang area of â€‹â€‹Hubei Province. The mountains and valleys here are sparsely populated, the land is sparsely populated, the economy is backward, and the people live in poverty. In 1968, the second automobile manufacturer of state-funded key enterprises started construction in Shiyan, Hubei Province. The modern industrial construction made the Shiyan change like a womenâ€™s university. After 10 years of effort, tens of thousands of Dongfeng cars drove off the production line. The historically unknown town became Chinaâ€™s fastest-growing city at the time and was known as â€œChina's Detroit.â€ The construction of the two steam companies has brought about drastic changes here, the most important of which is that here, relying on the second automobile to build a new auto parts industry cluster. This industry group is divided into four levels. First, the plant, such as standard parts, leaf springs, pistons and piston rings, carriages, and hubs, was planned during the construction of the Auto Group. Provincial enterprises that invest in and construct such as automobile tires, automotive tarpaulins, automotive engineering plastics, powder metallurgy, and automobile electrical appliances; Third, in order to help Shiyan to develop economically in Shiyan, the company will send some parts with low technological content and simple processing methods. The local government has organized a number of parts and components companies such as cylinder liners, water tanks and muffler plants, automobile hub plants, foundries, and refitting plants; the fourth is to stabilize the workforce, and the company has organized some of the employeesâ€™ family members who are not working. , The use of waste in the production of the corner, for the production of some small parts and components for the two steam. People call these small parts and Accessories supporting enterprises â€œFive and Seven Companyâ€, which is actually a small street enterprise. These companies belong to different levels of government jurisdictions such as the Second Automobile Company, Hubei Province, Shiyan City, and its affiliated counties, townships, and streets. The superior management departments of enterprises are not the same, the financial investment channels are not the same, and the taxation and profit transfer channels are not the same. There is no horizontal relationship between them. However, one thing is the same. These companies are dependent on the diffusion of products by two steam companies to survive. The technical level of FAW determines their technical level, and the survival status of FAW determines their current status.
Relying on OEMs, relying on OEMs and relying on OEMs, this is their common ground. Zooming into the whole country, parts companies rely on and rely on vehicle companies. This is the status quo of Chinese auto parts companies.
After the 80s of last century, with the gradual warming of the auto industry, more places in the country, especially the rapidly developing eastern coastal counties, townships, even villages and individuals, have turned their sights on auto parts like small fish. Shrimp encircles a large ship and picks up some of the food on board. The people here are smart, capable and ingenious. Their salesmen have worked tirelessly and are carrying out trial productions of various parts and components. They frequently appear in various automobile OEMs and assembly OEMs, and they are even close to the cost. Selling your products at a price lower than the cost is to squeeze into the spare parts supply circle of the auto factory. In order to reduce costs, many OEMs have also outsourced the parts they need to these companies. In order to further lower prices, OEMs have divided supporting component companies into A, B, C, and even D corners. They compete with each other, which in turn stimulates the booming growth of parts and components companies. Although the auto parts business group has grown, but these companies are small and scattered, the level of technology is low, depending on the situation of relying on vehicle manufacturers is still even worse. At that time, China's auto vehicle companies mainly consisted of two major truck groups, FAW and FAW, as well as a limited number of heavy trucks, light trucks, and a small number of cars and jeep companies. What is the level of these companies?
In 1956, FAW was built in China to create the automotive industry in China, but it was not until 1958 that FAW's production had failed to reach the design level of 30,000 vehicles. By 1958, the domestic â€œGreat Leap Forwardâ€ was set off in China. Due to decentralization of corporate management in the country at the time, coupled with the strong demand for automobiles in domestic production and living, the provinces and municipalities were at a loss and ignored the law of economic development and development. There are no conditions to rush to use auto parts factories and repair plants to imitate and assemble cars. In just a few months, with the exception of Tibet and Ningxia, dozens of factories in various provinces, autonomous regions and autonomous regions nationwide have produced more than 200 types of automobiles. The first boom in the development history of China's auto industry. The types of cars produced in this way are duplicated, the technology is backward, the quality is poor, and the quantity is small. In 1960, the country produced a total of 16,000 vehicles of various types, of which FAW produced 14,900, and the remaining factories produced only 1,100 vehicles, some even a few a year.
In 1962, the state adopted the eight-character principle of â€œadjustment, consolidation, enrichment, and improvement.â€ The first-unit ministry also established a car reorganization team. After â€œclosing, stopping, reconciling, and transferringâ€, by 1963, a total of car manufacturing remained in the country. There are 18 factories and 45 modified car factories. In 1963, the company produced about 20,000 cars, initially forming four automobile production bases, including Beijing Automobile Manufacturing Plant, Nanjing Automobile Manufacturing Plant, Shanghai Automotive Manufacturing Plant, and Jinan Automobile Manufacturing Plant.
In the early 1970s, according to the needs of combat readiness and third-line construction, the state once again devolved its management authority, which formed the second automobile development upsurge. By 1976, the number of automobile manufacturers in the country had increased to 53, and the number of special-purpose vehicle conversion plants had increased to 166. The vast majority of these so-called automobile plants are assembled by buying parts, which in turn has promoted the sprawl of parts and components companies. In the initial period of reform and opening up, a new wave of economic development was launched throughout the country. The supply of auto products as an important means of production was in short supply, automobile manufacturers and remodeling plants soared again, and parts and components products expanded again. Since these cars are based on the liberation of FAW, the Dongfeng of the Second Automobile Company and the Beijing Jeep, you copy me and copy it. The liberation of FAW was modeled on the former Soviet Unionâ€™s Gith 150. The Gith 150 was modeled after the U.S. multinational car of the 1930s, and by the 1980s it was already 50 years old. In the United States, the U.S. It can only be found in museums, but it is still the mainstay of road transport in China. Although Dongfeng Motor was built in the 1970s, its technical level has lagged far behind the international level at that time. The level of vehicle companies is such that the level of parts and components companies that supply these OEMs can be imagined.
According to the statistics of China National Automotive Industry Corporation at that time, in 1984, there were 2,400 auto parts factories throughout the country, with 478,000 employees, which accounted for 50% of the total number in the automotive industry. Fixed assets amounted to 3.01 billion yuan, accounting for 34.3% of the automotive industry. These enterprises are affiliated with â€œeconomic privilegeâ€ in various regions and are dispersed throughout the country like scattered sand. People, finance, property, production, supply, and sales are controlled by local governments in all provinces, cities, counties, and even townships. Production enterprises are small and product quality is high. Poor, low production efficiency, and poor economic returns are common features of these companies. Many companies rely on each vehicle manufacturer to â€œstudy lifeâ€, give it a mouthful, eat it, and live in a semi-dead state. Technological reform, innovation, and development all have their own limitations.
Due to the low labor productivity, poor economic returns, and tight funding, scientific research and design are almost impossible to discuss. And foreign major auto parts companies have complete and advanced development capabilities and product testing bases. Research funding accounts for 3% to 8% of annual turnover.
The poor quality of parts and components leads to low quality of the entire vehicle. According to the statistics of China National Automobile Company in that year, there was a huge gap between China's autos and the international level at that time, mainly due to the low level of technology and poor quality. For example, the average fuel consumption of automobiles in our country is 38 to 109% higher than that of similar foreign cars. The first fault mileage, fault interval mileage, and first overhaul mileage are the criteria for weighing the quality of a car at that time. The gap in China's automobile industry is alarming. At that time, China National Automobile Industry Corporation had done sample inspections. The first fault mileage was: the highest domestic car was 900 kilometers, the imported car was 30,000 kilometers; the interval between failures, the highest domestic car was 1667 kilometers, the imported car was 30,000 kilometers; the first overhaul mileage: Domestic petrol vehicles ranged from 150,000 to 200,000 kilometers, and imported gasoline vehicles were 200,000 kilometers. Domestic diesel vehicles are 1,520 kilometers, and imported diesel vehicles are 500,000 kilometers.
As for noise, comfort, driving safety, and manipulation, there is a huge gap.
In 1983, China National Automobile Co., Ltd. conducted a 25,000-kilometer reliability test on 11 domestic prototypes and 11 prototypes. The result is shocking:
The average time between failures of Liberal-brand vehicles was 620.4 kilometers, and that of Dongfeng and Beijing was 540.5 kilometers. Beijing 212 is 425.5 kilometers. The faultless mileage of Japanese cars is 25,000 kilometers.
Five CA15 liberation cars participated in the experiment. When the first car traveled 553 kilometers, the door opened automatically and the generator did not generate electricity. The clutch was not completely separated when the fourth vehicle was traveling 1061 kilometers. When the fifth vehicle was traveling 114.5 kilometers, the generator regulator was damaged.
In the Dongfeng EQ140 test, the first vehicle automatically misjudged when it traveled 215 kilometers. When the second vehicle traveled 114.5 kilometers, the circuit-off engine did not turn off.
Two Beijing 130 test vehicles, the first one traveled 16.6 kilometers when the radio was damaged, causing the entire vehicle circuit failure. When the second vehicle travels 185 kilometers, the left and right hubs heat up.
Two Beijing 212 test vehicles, when the first one traveled 250 kilometers, the transmission and synchronizer sounded. The second one had just started and the steering gear did not return heavily.
(Zhang Maozhuo â€œBiography of Rao Binâ€ Huawen Publishing House)
In 1981, the Nanjing Automobile Factory made a self-contained road test with its own jump truck and Japan's Isuzu truck with the tonnage. Isuzu trucks carry 3 tons. Nanjing Yuejin's load was 2.5 tons, Isuzu's 100 km fuel consumption was 13.56 liters, and Nanjing Yuejin was 20.98 liters. Japanese cars fuel 1/3 less than Chinese cars.
The horrors of the entire vehicle quality mercilessly exposed the cruel reality of poor parts quality.
In the early 1980s, Beijing and Shanghai successively began joint venture production of jeep cars and cars. In view of the fact that domestic foreign exchange is extremely scarce, the State requires that, within the stipulated time, the parts and components of the joint venture car must be domestically produced and set out the proportion requirements to be achieved year by year. This is a turning point for the development of auto parts in China. The United States and Germany proposed that localized parts and components must meet their product quality and technical standards.
The modern car industry needs a modern component production system as a support. China has introduced a modern Santana car, but China does not have a modern component production system that is compatible with it. The vast majority of thousands of auto parts manufacturers are in the era of small-scale farming. Do not say that the technical quality of the product can not meet Santana's need for loading, and the batch quantity of tens of thousands of vehicles also makes them unable to do it. When Shanghai Volkswagen put forward the localization of parts and components, many companies did not dare to speak out in the face of strict quality and technical requirements. When Shanghai Volkswagen was formally established in 1985, Santana's localized parts were only tires, signage brackets, and logos. Proportioning was only 3%. Three years later, in 1987, the Santana localization rate was only 5%, far from reaching Expected goals. Lu Ji'an, the second chairman of Shanghai Volkswagen, said that China's auto parts industry is "3 years behind" compared to international standards.
Under the prevailing circumstances, relying on the domestic production of truck parts, low-level technology, low-level equipment, and extensive production management to complete the quality standards of the United States and Germany, is really a difficult task. The process was arduous and difficult. In order to realize the localization of Santana, the Shanghai Autobots and Chinese automakers mobilized the strength of Shanghai and all of China, including military enterprises, and took hardships to remove almost a few layers of skin. By 1991, they finally achieved localization. %. The difficulty of domestically-manufactured Santana components in Shanghai reflects the reality of China's auto parts industry. The story is sufficient to write a large book.
Without changing the existing small-scale agricultural workshop production of parts and components manufacturers and establishing a modern parts production system with technical quality assurance, China will not be able to establish a modern car industry, and will not establish a modern car production industry. The introduction of modern cars such as Santana Meaningless, the significance of localization in Santana is also here. In a sense, the localization of Santana components is the first step in building a modern Chinese automobile industry.
The problems encountered in the localization of auto parts have attracted the attention of the Central Government. Zou Jiahua, then a state councilor and director of the State Development Planning Commission, repeatedly stated that the development of the Chinese car industry must solve the problem of the development of parts and components companies. It also proposes that the development of the auto parts industry must be done with a high starting point, large quantities, and specialization. Arranging the project must take into consideration the economic scale and the two markets for the entire vehicle and maintenance. The "Development Strategy for China's Car Industry" (hereinafter referred to as the "Development Strategy") adopted by the state in 1990 sets forth clear principles for the development of car parts:
1, relatively independent and moderately advanced.
2, the principle of export-oriented development. Before the domestic car industry has reached the scale of economy, it must actively enter the international market and form a pattern of high starting point, large volume and specialization.
3, the principle of unified planning. To achieve standardization, serialization and generalization. Each car factory can not independently engage in its own closed parts production supporting system.
4. The principle of special support. In order to ensure the necessary funds for the development of car parts and components, a sedan auto parts development fund was established to use the annual adjustment tax on imported vehicles and a full set of spare parts, and a part of the horizontal subsidy for sedan collected from various places as a source of funds for centralized arrangements throughout the country. Parts project. For export-oriented parts and components, give tax incentives.
Metallurgical, chemical, petroleum, building materials, textile, light industry, machinery, electronics and other industries and the car industry supporting products, in terms of quantity, variety and quality should be synchronized development according to the requirements of the car industry, included in the industry's development plan and plan. It should be clear that the introduction of products must be made domestically, and domestically produced products must meet the standards for the introduction of technology.
Afterwards, Zou Jiahua further instructed in a report:
I am in favor of grasping the technological transformation of mass production of spare parts. Now that all principles are in place, we must study specific opinions.
1. How much money? Including bank loans, corporate self-raising.
2, determine which parts?
3, according to these parts to determine some factories.
4. What are the technical transformation contents of these factories? What goal to achieve?
5. Who is supporting these parts?
6. Finally, we must win with the competitiveness of quality and price.
7, of course, how much to look at the possibility of funding.
8, in short, to concentrate on doing several things.
9, other companies rely on their own solution.
In June 1991, the State Development Planning Commission and China National Automobile Industry Corporation jointly held a symposium on auto parts industry in Dongguan, Guangdong Province. The meeting concluded that the implementation of the "Eighth Five-Year Plan" for car parts must achieve three shifts:
1. To shift from the development of general automotive parts to the development of sedan parts;
2. Localization work should be transferred from pilots, trial production, and small-batch shipments to host matching requirements to form a certain batch, stabilize quality, reduce costs, and strictly control the delivery period;
3, from the general reliance on technological progress to more targeted, to overcome the technical difficulties of car parts and the development of high-tech areas.
On July 27, 1991, Xu Bingjin, Deputy Director of the Industry Second Division of the State Planning Commission, and Lu Fuyuan, Deputy General Manager of China National Automobile Corporation, jointly wrote reports to Hao Jianxiu and Zou Jiahua, Deputy Directors of the State Development Planning Commission, and proposed the implementation of the "Eighth Five-Year Plan". Development of auto parts:
The guiding ideology for the development of the auto parts industry during the â€œEighth Five-Year Planâ€ is:
1. Closely focus on the "three major three small", the focus is "three major", taking into account the other;
2. The site selection points should make full use of the existing basis, and each key key component should support 1-2 points. In the planning work, macro control should be combined with the introduction of competition mechanisms;
3. Concentrate on the construction of several key enterprises with large quantities, high starting points, specialization, excellent quality, and certain product development capabilities;
4. Countries, industries, and localities must adopt a tilt policy to support the planned car parts and components enterprises;
5. Through the construction of car parts industry, the industrial structure and quality of the entire auto parts industry will be further improved.
Focusing on the status quo of car parts and components enterprises scattered, chaotic, and poor, Xu Bingjin and Lu Fuyuan proposed in the report materials that the implementation of the "Eighth Five Year Plan" of auto parts and components must be planned in a unified way, with excellent selection and deployment, and step-by-step implementation, with key support:
Regardless of whether it is the central government or the local government, the construction projects and construction funds must be integrated into the national plan, and on the basis of unified planning, they should focus on building several large parts and components projects. With these enterprises as the leader, gradually form a number of specialties. Product group of companies. For example, if a mold manufacturing complex is established, several automobile mold factories that have already formed a certain capacity in China will be united to form a mold manufacturing consortium in the entire industry. At the same time, a mold design and development center will be established to focus technology, development, information, and CAD technologies on center. Through such an organization, the level of design and manufacture of China's auto molds can be greatly improved. After a few years, foreign molds can no longer be purchased. In a few years, auto body design and development can be carried out independently, and molds can also be exported. Another example is whether it is possible to select some spare parts companies with better conditions in existing automobile groups, military industrial enterprises, and local key enterprises to focus on training and develop them into backbone component factories for industrial services, such as FAW Tank Factory and Wheel Factory.
This idea highlights the institutional advantages of concentrating on the major issues. If implemented, several major core components of Chinese car parts, such as engines, transmissions, frames, bodywork, automotive electronics, automotive molds, etc., require large-scale investment projects. It is very likely that breakthroughs will be made. Perhaps China's car development will be another pattern. Unfortunately, due to a variety of reasons, their good ideas have not been implemented.
Although measures to support the parts and components industry have been proposed at the national policy level, the huge disparity in technology reserves, talent team building, and capital, and the reality of the â€œprincely economyâ€ have caused the implementation of policies to be compromised. The transformation and development of parts and components companies needs several elements such as capital, time, technology, and talent. When these elements have not yet been generated and completed, the development of the domestic automobile industry has been time consuming.
The problem of localization of Santana components has not yet been solved. Localization of Fukang CitroÃ«n parts, localization of FAW Jetta, Audi parts, and more localization of auto parts for joint venture brands follow closely. Chinese auto parts companies are extremely strict in these areas. Before the harsh technical quality requirements are difficult to adapt, the requirements for the production schedule of the joint venture cars cannot be postponed. Under such circumstances, the foreign partners in the joint venture propose that they can import the parts and components companies that they have cooperated abroad with in order to bring them into China. Have to open the door to the giants of international parts companies. These western parts and components companies were able to enter the room in a magnificent manner, adopting joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions, and setting up factories alone to make great achievements in China's parts and components market. At this time, it coincided with the reform of the domestic economic system and the restructuring of enterprises. Many local governments took a share of the joint ventures of local parts and components companies that had difficulties in their operations in order to dump their burdens, and some welcomed their purchases, and some even gave it to Others.æ›° æ›° æ›° æ›° æ›° â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ â€œ æ›° æ›° æ›° æ›° æ›° , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,. Most domestic parts and components companies have thus fallen into the pockets of foreign giants. Faced with the unfavorable situation, even if some parts and components companies have to fight stubbornly, they have no strength to compete with international big brand parts and components enterprise groups that have rich technical strength and abundant capital for 100 years. In this way, while the foreign-owned brand sedan occupied a large part of the Chinese car market, foreign-related component giants also followed, covering almost all Chinese parts and components markets. Although foreign-owned branded parts and components companies have expanded their technological advantage, there are still a few commendable self-owned branded spare parts and enterprise groups that have survived and developed strongly, such as the Wanxiang Group led by Lu Guanqiu.
In China, it is the entire vehicle company that leads the development of the parts and components industry. In the international market, it is the parts and components industry that promotes the advancement of vehicle companies. In a sense, the development of parts and components determines the future of the vehicle company. It is precisely because of this that international multinational auto giants and component giants such as Bosch, Denso, and Delphi will control the development of Chinese auto parts companies as their long-term strategic goal of occupying the Chinese market. In order to achieve its strategic goals, in addition to the control of parts and components companies through mergers and acquisitions, etc., another approach they take is to control the production of core technologies and core components.
The application of electronic technology in the automotive field has brought the development of automotive technology to a new stage. Relying on high-tech talents and huge amounts of R&D funds, the international auto parts industry giant combines modern electronic technology with auto parts manufacturing, such as the use of electronic chips to control the intake and exhaust technologies of the engine, making the combustion of gasoline more complete. Emissions are cleaner, more fuel efficient, and more powerful; use a variety of electronic sensors to control the braking and attitude of the car, making the car more smooth and safer; this high-tech core technology enables the manufacturing of automotive parts and components. A new commanding height. The gap in the manufacturing process, such as processing accuracy and material, has not been reduced. Now that new electronic technologies have been added, the gap between China's auto parts and the international advanced level is even more pronounced. In 2011, a report released by the China Automotive Engineering Research Institute stated that at present, Chinaâ€™s spare parts companies are heavily rebuilt, their production concentration is not high, domestic domestic companies are small, R&D investment is low, and the proportion of foreign auto parts production accounts for more and more. high. Most of the core components such as engines and gasoline turbochargers are monopolized by international brands, and the share of independent brands is very small. The 2011 3.11 earthquake in Japan resulted in the suspension of production of some auto parts manufacturers. This has caused the spillover effect of many Chinese automobile manufacturers to suspend production. This shows that the status of China's auto parts industry â€œhas been behind for 30 yearsâ€ has not been improved.
There are inherent shortages of funds, lack of technical reserves, lack of technical talents, and small companies, which are inherently inadequate. Acquired development faces a series of short-sighted behaviors such as self-administration, quick success, heavy production, light R&D, heavy trucks, and light parts; There have been related policies, but no emphasis has been placed on the overall strategy. Many policies lack continuity and operability. The â€œprincely economyâ€ has become a prisoner and even worsened the original deficiencies. These are the development of China's auto parts industry. The source of slowness. Although Chinaâ€™s automobile production and sales have already reached the top spot in the world, the core technologies from the â€œheartâ€ to â€œbrainâ€ and various â€œjointsâ€ are basically controlled by â€œforeignersâ€, which makes the significance of â€œfirstâ€ greatly reduced.
The year 2011 is the beginning of China's "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" and is also the year of transformation of China's auto industry. As the world's largest automobile manufacturing country and automobile consumer market, the development of China's auto parts industry will have a direct bearing on the development of China's auto industry and the global auto industry in the next five years. It will use global scientific and technological achievements and intellectual resources to adjust the structure and transformation. Upgrade, enhance core competencies, overcome difficulties, and highlight the importance of sieges. China's spare parts industry has a long way to go.
Sewer Jetting Pumps
Sewer Jetting Pumps
ZHEJIANG BOTUOLINI MECHANICAL CO.,LTD , https://www.botuopump.com