In 2015, it was an important year in the process of urbanization in China. New urbanization continued to deepen and the regional coordinated development strategy was steadily implemented. Planning for urban groups such as the Yangtze River Delta has been speeded up, a number of national-level new districts have been established in the Yuzhong New District, 59 pilot cities in the second batch of cities such as Fangshan District of Beijing have been introduced, and adjustments to administrative divisions have been accelerated for the withdrawal of counties and cities. With the reform of the household registration system, the urban planning, construction and management have been further strengthened, and the urban functions have been further improved.
The "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Cooperative Development Plan" was approved for release. This is a programmatic document that promotes a major national strategy for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. It is the basic guideline for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei in the current and future period; the outline proposes to work hard to form The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei goal of coordinating development with the same goal and measures, complementing each other's advantages, and mutual benefit has created a new support zone for China's economic development.
The year 2015 is a crucial year for China's transformation of urban development methods. It will strive to improve the urban human settlement environment and improve the quality of urbanization. The new "Air Pollution Prevention Law" was revised and implemented to improve the quality of the atmospheric environment as the goal, adhere to the source of governance, improve the relevant system from the perspective of promoting the transformation of economic development methods, optimize the industrial structure, and adjust the energy structure, reflecting the central government's The new requirements of civilized construction and environmental protection have conformed to the public's new expectations for improving the quality of the environment and provided powerful legal weapons for the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution.
The State Council promulgated the "Water Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan", which focuses on improving the quality of water environment, systematically promoting the prevention and control of water pollution, water ecological protection, and water resources management. It is the current and future guideline for the national water pollution prevention and control work. The State Council issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Construction of a Sponge City" and proposed that through the construction of a sponge city, the impact of urban development and construction on the ecological environment should be minimized, and the capacity for urban drainage, flood prevention, flood prevention, and disaster prevention and reduction should be effectively improved.
In 2015, China achieved important results in implementing the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ strategy and promoting international economic cooperation. The Central Government has established a leading group for the â€œBelt and Road Initiativeâ€ led by Zhang Gaoliâ€™s deputy prime minister. He has held several meetings to promote major events and priorities in the â€œBelt and Road Initiativeâ€; the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments jointly issued the â€œPromotion. Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Vision and Action of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, put forward the "One Belt and One Road" principle of co-building, framework ideas, cooperation priorities, and cooperation mechanisms.
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, which China initiated and was jointly established by the 57 countries and officially opened in Beijing, will effectively increase infrastructure investment in Asia, promote the process of regional interconnection and economic integration, and bring positive boost to economic growth in Asia and the world. It will help promote the development of a global economic governance system that is more fair, reasonable, and effective.
I. Central City Work Conference Held in Beijing
The city is the center of China's economic, political, cultural, and social activities. It plays a decisive role in the overall work of the party and the country. Since the reform and opening up, China has experienced the largest and fastest urbanization process in world history. The development of the city is magnificent and has achieved remarkable achievements. Urban development has driven the entire economic and social development, and urban construction has become an important engine for modernization.
From December 20 to 21, 2015, the Central City Work Conference was held in Beijing. The meeting analyzed the situation facing China's urban development, clarified the guiding ideology, overall thinking, and key tasks for doing a good job in the city, and put forward concrete plans for doing a good job in the city.
The conference pointed out that at present and for a period to come, the guiding ideology for urban work in China is: guided by the Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the "Three Represents," and the scientific concept of development, implement the concept of development that is innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared. People-oriented, scientific development, reform and innovation, and governance of the city in accordance with the law, change the mode of urban development, improve the urban governance system, improve the ability of urban governance, focus on solving outstanding problems such as urban diseases, and continuously improve the quality of the urban environment, the quality of life of the people, and the competitiveness of the city. Harmonious and livable, dynamic, and modern cities with distinctive features will increase the level of new urbanization and embark on a path of urban development with Chinese characteristics.
The meeting emphasized that urban work is a systematic project. We must adhere to intensive development, frame the total volume, limit capacity, revitalize inventory, increase premiums, improve quality, base on national conditions, respect nature, adapt to nature, protect nature, and improve the urban ecological environment. We must make concerted efforts to achieve breakthroughs in key areas. , focus on improving the sustainability of urban development and livability.
First, respect the laws of urban development. Urban development is a natural historical process with its own laws. Urban and economic development are mutually reinforcing and mutually reinforcing. Urban development is a process in which rural populations converge to cities and agricultural land is transformed into land for urban construction according to the corresponding scale. Population and land use must be matched, and the scale of cities must be compatible with the carrying capacity of resources and the environment.
Second, coordinate the three major structures of space, scale, and industry to improve overall urban work. It is necessary to combine the implementation of the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ initiative, the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and the construction of the Yangtze River Economic Belt to define the spatial layout and functional positioning of Chinaâ€™s urban development. To take urban agglomerations as the main form, scientifically plan the urban spatial layout, achieve compact and intensive, efficient and green development. Cities should combine resource endowments and location advantages, clearly define the leading industries and special industries, strengthen industrial collaboration among large, medium and small cities and small towns, and gradually form a development pattern of horizontal dislocation development and vertical division of labor and collaboration.
Third, overall planning, construction, and management of the three links to improve the system of urban work. It is necessary to comprehensively consider various factors such as urban functional positioning, cultural characteristics, and construction management to formulate plans. It is necessary to strengthen urban design, promote urban remediation, and strengthen the openness and compulsion of controlled detailed planning. It is necessary to strengthen the planning and control of the three-dimensionality of the city's space, coordination of the plane, the integrity of the landscape, the continuity of the context, and so on, and retain the â€œgenesâ€ unique to the city, such as regional environment, cultural characteristics, and architectural style. We must seize the key point of urban management and services, constantly improve urban management and services, and thoroughly change the extensive management methods so that the people can live in cities more convenient, more comfortable and better.
Fourth, coordinate the reforms, science and technology, and culture as the three driving forces to improve the sustainability of urban development. We must promote reforms in planning, construction, management, household registration, and other aspects, and plan all kinds of spatial planning on the basis of the planning of the main functional areas to promote the "combination of multiple regulations." It is necessary to deepen the reform of the urban management system and determine the scope of management, the list of powers, and the main body of responsibility. To promote urban science and technology, culture and many other areas of reform, optimize the innovation and entrepreneurship ecological chain, so that innovation becomes the main driving force for urban development, the release of new urban development momentum.
Fifth, coordinate the three major layouts of production, life, and ecology to improve the livability of urban development. Urban work should take the creation of an excellent living environment as a central goal, and strive to turn urban construction into a beautiful home where people and people live in harmony with nature. We must deepen the reform of the housing system in cities and towns, continue to improve the housing security system, accelerate the renovation of urban shantytowns and dilapidated buildings, and accelerate the transformation of old residential communities. We must vigorously carry out ecological restoration and let the cities reproduce green mountains and green hills. To control the intensity of urban development, delineate water protection lines, green space system lines, infrastructure construction control lines, historical and cultural protection lines, permanent basic farmland, and ecological protection red lines to prevent â€œspreadingâ€ expansion and promote green and low-carbon forms. Production lifestyle and urban construction operation model.
Sixth, coordinate the three main bodies of the government, society, and citizens, and increase the enthusiasm of all parties to promote urban development. We must insist on coordination and coordination and do our utmost to promote the concerted efforts of the government, society, and citizens in the same direction so that the tangible hand of the government, the invisible hand of the market, and the hard-working hand of the people can work together. The government should innovate urban governance methods, and in particular pay attention to strengthening the city's fine management. It is necessary to improve citizens' civilized qualities, respect citizens' right to know, participate in, and supervise decision-making in urban development, and encourage enterprises and citizens to participate in urban construction and management through various means, so as to truly achieve common governance and common development and sharing.
The conference pointed out that cities are the most concentrated areas for all kinds of essential resources and economic and social activities in China. To fully build a well-to-do society and accelerate the realization of modernization, we must do a good job of "the locomotive" of the city, grasp the law of development, and promote a new type of urbanization based on human beings. We will maximize the potential of this expansion of domestic demand and effectively resolve all kinds of "urban diseases."
It is necessary to enhance the level of planning, enhance the scientific and authoritative nature of urban planning, promote the integration of multiple regulations, carry out urban design in an all-round way, and improve the guidelines for building in the new era so as to scientifically plan the â€œgrowth coordinatesâ€ of cities.
It is necessary to upgrade the level of construction, strengthen underground and aboveground infrastructure construction in cities, build sponge cities, accelerate the renovation of shantytowns and dilapidated buildings, promote the comprehensive renovation of old residential quarters in an orderly manner, and strive to basically complete existing urban shantytowns, urban villages, and villages by 2020. The renovation of dilapidated houses will promote the green development of the city, improve the construction standards and project quality, and pay great attention to building energy conservation.
To improve the management level and strive to build a smart city to implement the residence permit system as a starting point to promote the equalization of basic public services for urban residents, strengthen urban public management, and comprehensively enhance the quality of citizens. Promote reform and innovation and provide strong institutional and institutional guarantees for urban development.
II. The â€œComprehensive Development Plan of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebeiâ€ was approved for implementation
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which belongs to the capital of Gyeonggi, is close to the Bohai Sea, backed by Taiyue, and takes the â€œThree Northsâ€. Its strategic position is very important. It is the most dynamic, open, most innovative, and most populous region in Chinaâ€™s economy. First, it is also an important engine that drives China's economic development. Promoting the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is a major decision-making arrangement made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council under the new historical conditions. It is necessary to coordinate and advance the "four comprehensive" strategic plans, achieve the goal of "two hundred years" and the great Chinese nation. The revival of the Chinese dream has great practical significance and far-reaching historical significance.
On April 30, 2015, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee reviewed and approved the â€œCompendium of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Coordinated Development Planâ€ (hereinafter referred to as the "Planning Outline"). From the aspects of strategic significance, general requirements, positioning, orderly disposition of Beijing's non-capital functions, promotion of breakthroughs in key areas, promotion of innovation-driven development, coordinated and coordinated development of related tasks, deepening institutional and institutional reforms, pilot demonstrations, and strengthening organizational implementation. The grand blueprint for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei is a programmatic document for the promotion of a major national strategy for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. It is the basic guideline for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei in the current and future period.
The guiding ideology for promoting the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is: to unravel Beijing's non-capital functions, solve Beijing's â€œbig city diseaseâ€ as the basic starting point, and to use resource and environmental carrying capacity as the basis, and to take the construction of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration as the carrier. Optimize the regional division of labor and industrial layout as the key point, take the spatial integration planning of resource elements as the main line, build long-term system mechanisms as the starting point, focus on adjusting and optimizing the economic structure and spatial structure, and strive to build a modern transportation network system, and focus on expanding the environmental capacity of the ecological environment. Space, focus on promoting industrial upgrading and transfer, focusing on promoting public service building and sharing, focusing on accelerating the process of market integration, accelerating the establishment of a modernized new capital circle, and striving to create a synergy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei target, measures, complementing each other, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation To develop a new pattern and build a new support zone for China's economic development.
The overall functional orientation of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is: the world-class urban agglomeration with the capital as the core, the coordinated development and reform of the entire region to lead the district, the national innovation-driven new engine of economic growth, and the eco-restoration environment improvement demonstration area. The orientations of the three provinces and cities are: â€œNational Political Center, Cultural Center, International Exchange Center, and Science and Technology Innovation Centerâ€ in Beijing; Tianjin â€œNational Advanced Manufacturing R&D Base, Northern International Shipping Core Area, Financial Innovation Operation Demonstration Area, and Reform and Opening Up District "; Hebei Province, "an important national modern trade logistics base, industrial transformation and upgrading pilot zone, a new type of urbanization and urban and rural demonstration areas, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei eco-environmental support zone." The overall orientation of the region reflects the â€œone game of chessâ€ ideology of three provinces and cities, highlighting the complementary functions, dislocation development, and complementing each other; the three provinces and cities are positioned to obey and serve the overall positioning of the region, enhance the integrity, and meet the strategic needs of the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei.
The goal of the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is: In the near future, by 2017, significant progress has been made in the orderly dispersal of Beijing's non-capital functions. It is in line with the goal of coordinated development, and it is in urgent need of reality, with conditions, consensus in traffic integration, ecological environment protection, and industrial upgrading. The key areas such as the transfer took the lead in making breakthroughs, deepened the reforms, driven the innovation, promoted the pilot demonstrations in an orderly manner, and achieved remarkable results in collaborative development.
From mid-term to 2020, the permanent population of Beijing will be controlled within 23 million people, and major problems such as â€œbig city diseaseâ€ in Beijing will be alleviated. The regional integrated transportation network will basically take shape, the ecological environment quality will be effectively improved, and the industrial linkage development will achieve significant progress. Public service co-construction and sharing has achieved positive results, the coordinated development mechanism has been functioning effectively, and the development gap within the region has narrowed, creating a new situation in which Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei are cooperating for development and mutual benefit.
In the long-term to 2030, the core functions of the capital will be further optimized, the regional integration pattern of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will be basically formed, the regional economic structure will be more reasonable, the overall quality of the ecological environment will be good, the level of public services will tend to be balanced, and it will become a country with stronger international competitiveness and influence. The important areas of force play a greater role in guiding and supporting the countryâ€™s economic and social development.
The "Planning Outline" defines the spatial layout concept of "complementary functions, regional linkage, axial agglomeration, and node support", and clarifies that "one core, two cities, three axes, four zones, and multiple nodes" as the skeleton to promote orderly To unravel Beijing's non-capital functions, and build a network-based spatial pattern with important cities as the fulcrum, strategic functional area platforms as carriers, and traffic trunks and ecological corridors as links.
"One nuclear" refers to Beijing. The primary task of the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is to unravel Beijing's non-capital functions, optimize and upgrade the core functions of the capital, and solve Beijing's â€œbig city diseaseâ€ problem. â€œTwo Citiesâ€ refers to Beijing and Tianjin. This is the main engine for the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. It is necessary to further strengthen the linkage between Beijing and Tianjin, expand the breadth and depth of cooperation in all directions, accelerate the development of urbanization, and jointly exert high-end guidance and radiation. . â€œThree-axisâ€ refers to the three industrial development belts of Beijing and Tianjin, Beijing Baoshi, and Jingtang-Qin, and the central axis of towns and towns. This is the main framework supporting the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. The â€œfour districtsâ€ are the central core functional zone, the eastern coastal development zone, the southern functional extension zone, and the northwestern ecological conservation zone. Each functional zone has a clear spatial scope and development priorities. The â€œmulti-nodeâ€ includes regional central cities such as Shijiazhuang, Tangshan, Baoding, and Handan, and Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Langfang, Qinhuangdao, Quzhou, Xingtai, and Hengshui, with emphasis on improving their comprehensive carrying capacity and service capabilities. Industry and population gather. At the same time, basing on the comparative advantages and existing foundations of the three provinces and cities, we will accelerate the formation of a modern urban system with clear positioning, reasonable division of labor, complete functions, and ecological livability, and a green and low-carbon smart urbanization road.
The â€œPlanning Outlineâ€ proposes that the recognition of four types of industries and institutions will be sorted out in an orderly manner. The emphasis is on relieving general industries, especially high-consumption industries, regional logistics bases, regional professional markets, and other tertiary industries, and some education, medical care, and training. Institutions and other social and public service functions, and some non-capital functions such as some administrative and professional service agencies and corporate headquarters.
The "Planning Outline" defines the three key areas of transportation integration, environmental protection, and industrial upgrading and transfer. In terms of traffic integration, the focus is to build a highly efficient and dense rail transit network, improve convenient and smooth road traffic networks, open up the â€œdecapitated roadâ€ of the national expressway, completely eliminate cross-regional â€œbottleneck road sectionsâ€ of the provincial highways, and speed up the construction of modernized Tianjin. The port group will build a world-class aviation hub, accelerate the construction of the new airport in Beijing, vigorously develop the city traffic with priority for public transportation, improve the intelligent management level of transportation, enhance the level of regional integrated transportation services, and develop safe, green and sustainable transportation.
In terms of ecological environmental protection, the focus is joint prevention and control of environmental pollution, the establishment of an integrated environmental access and withdrawal mechanism, strengthening of environmental pollution control, the implementation of clean water actions, vigorously developing circular economy, promoting ecological protection and construction, planning and construction a batch Central Capital National Park and Forest Park, actively respond to climate change. In promoting industrial upgrading and transfer, the focus is to clarify the orientation and direction of the industry, accelerate the industrial transformation and upgrading, promote the connection of industrial transfer, strengthen the convergence of the industrial development plans of three provinces and cities, and formulate the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Industrial Guidance Catalog to accelerate the construction of the Tianjin-Fujian platform and strengthen the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Industrial Cooperation.
Third, the "One Belt and One Road" development strategy to promote the implementation
In September and October 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed to jointly build the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" (abbreviated as "One Belt and One Road") during his visit to Central Asia and Southeast Asian countries. The initiative has received great attention from the international community. When attending the 2013 China-ASEAN Expo, Premier Li Keqiang of the Chinese State Council emphasized that the ASEAN-based Maritime Silk Road should be built to create a strategic fulcrum for the development of the hinterland. According to preliminary estimates, the total population of the population along the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ is about 4.4 billion people, and the total economic volume is about 21 trillion US dollars, accounting for 63% and 29% of the world respectively. The "Belt and Road" initiative, China's first advocate and high-level national strategy, has far-reaching strategic significance for China's modernization and its leadership in the world.
On February 1, 2015, the "One Belt, One Road" construction conference was held in Beijing. Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli presided over the meeting and delivered a speech. The meeting plans to deploy major events and priorities for the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ initiative in 2015 and in the coming period.
On February 1, the Central Government established the Leading Group of the â€œBelt and Road Initiativeâ€. Zhang Gaoli, vice premier of the State Council, took the lead; Wang Huning, director of the Central Policy Research Office; Wang Yang, vice premier of the State Council; Yang Jing, secretary general of the State Council; .
On March 28th, at the opening ceremony of the 2015 Boao Forum for Asia Annual Meeting, President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech and said: The â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ development is based on the principle of mutual consultation, joint construction, and sharing. It is not closed but open. Inclusive; not a Chinese solo, but a chorus of countries along the line. The construction of the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ is not an empty slogan, but it is a visible and tangible practical move that will bring tangible benefits to the countries in the region. With the joint efforts of all parties concerned, the Vision and Action Document for the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ initiative have been formulated, and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has made substantial progress in its preparation work. The Silk Road Fund has been successfully launched and a number of infrastructure interconnection projects are already under way. Steady progress. These early harvests showed us the broad prospects of the â€œBelt and Roadâ€.
On March 28th, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued the â€œVision and Action for Promoting the Joint Construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Roadâ€, proposing that Xinjiang should take advantage of the unique geographical advantages and directions. The West will open an important window to deepen exchanges and cooperation with countries in Central Asia, South Asia and West Asia, form an important transportation hub, trade logistics and cultural science and education center on the Silk Road Economic Belt, and create a core area of â€‹â€‹the Silk Road Economic Belt; The unique advantages of ASEAN countries adjacent to each other in the land and sea have accelerated the opening and development of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone and the Zhujiang-Xijiang Economic Belt, built an international channel for the ASEAN region, created a new strategic fulcrum for the development of the southwest and south central regions, and formed the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. The Silk Road Economic Belt is an important gateway to organic convergence.
Make use of the advantages of the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the West Bank of the Straits, the Bohai Rim, and other economic zones with high degree of openness, strong economic strength, and strong use of radiation to speed up the construction of the China (Shanghai) Free Trade Pilot Zone and support the construction of the 21st century maritime silk in Fujian. Road core area; Give full play to the role of open cooperation areas such as Shenzhen Qianhai, Guangzhou Nansha, Zhuhai Hengqin, and Pingtan, Fujian, deepen cooperation with Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan to create a large bay area of â€‹â€‹Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao; use inland depth, human resources, industry Based on the good foundation, relying on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Chengyu City Cluster, Central Plains City Group, Hubao Eshan City Group, Hachang City Group and other key areas to promote regional interaction and cooperation and industrial agglomeration development, to create an important development and opening up of western Chongqing Supporting open economic highlands such as Chengdu, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang and Hefei.
On July 21, the "Belt and Road" construction promotion conference was held in Beijing. Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli presided over the meeting and delivered a speech. The meeting summed up the work of the previous section, focusing on key directions, key countries, and key projects, and further researched and deployed the next phase of work.
On December 31, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "Guiding Opinions on Further Strengthening Regional Cooperation" and proposed to vigorously promote the construction of the "One Belt and One Road." Support local governments to use their comparative advantage, implement the top-level design of the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ initiative, and provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) participate in the construction of â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ implementation plan. Support the western region to open up front positions in the west, lead the coastal areas, and support the strategic role of the inland hinterland, and create a new pattern of comprehensive opening within and outside the land and sea, and open to the outside world.
We will focus on the core area of â€‹â€‹Xinjiang Silk Road Economic Belt and the core area of â€‹â€‹the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road in Fujian. Combined with the construction of the six major international economic cooperation corridors, we will support deepening of regional exchanges and cooperation with countries (regions) along the route to jointly build overseas industrial agglomeration areas, and cultivate and build a batch of co-constructed corridor pilot demonstration provinces (regions, cities).
The proposal of the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ strategic concept is in line with the common needs of the countries along the route and opens up new opportunities for the complementary advantages and open development of the countries along the route. It is a new platform for international cooperation. Accelerating the construction of the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ is conducive to the promotion of economic prosperity and regional economic cooperation among countries along the route, the strengthening of exchanges and recognition among different civilizations, and the promotion of world peace and development. This is a great cause for the benefit of the people of all countries in the world.
IV. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank was established in Beijing
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is an intergovernmental multi-lateral development institution in Asia that was established by Chinaâ€™s initiative and was jointly established by 57 countries. It focuses on supporting infrastructure construction. The purpose of the establishment is to promote the development of Asian regions. The process of integration and economic integration, and strengthen cooperation between China and other Asian countries and regions.
On October 2, 2013, President Xi Jinping proposed the establishment of an Asian infrastructure investment bank initiative. On October 24, 2014, 21 finance ministers and authorized representatives of the first batch of intentional founding members, including China, India, and Singapore, signed a contract in Beijing to jointly decide to establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.
On March 12, 2015, the United Kingdom formally applied to join the Asian Investment Bank and became the first major Western country to apply for membership in the AIIB. Subsequently, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Switzerland and other countries expressed their willingness to join the AIIB as founders.
On April 15, the founding member states of the AIIB were identified as 57, of which 37 were in the region and 20 were in countries outside the region.
On June 29, the signing ceremony of the "Agreement on the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank" (hereinafter referred to as the "Agreement") was held in Beijing. The signing ceremony was attended by the Finance Ministers or authorized representatives of 57 intentional founding members of the Asian Investment Bank. Among them, 50 countries that have passed the domestic approval process formally signed the "Agreement". Other intentional founding member states that have not passed the domestic approval process witnessed the signing ceremony.
On November 4, the Seventeenth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress of China approved the "Agreement on the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank".
On December 25, Lou Jiwei, Minister of Finance of China announced in Beijing that the "Agreement on the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank" came into effect, signifying the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in a legal sense. The initial investment priorities of the AIIB include energy and power, transportation and telecommunications, rural and agricultural infrastructure, water supply and wastewater treatment, environmental protection, urban development, and logistics. The first batch of loan plans was approved around mid-2016.
As of December 25, 17 interested founding members including Burma, Singapore, Brunei, Australia, China, Mongolia, Austria, Britain, New Zealand, Luxembourg, South Korea, Georgia, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Pakistan and Jordan (The proportion of the total shares is 50.1%.) The "Agreement" has been ratified and the ratification has been submitted so as to meet the conditions for entry into force under the "Agreement". That is, at least 10 signatories approve and the signatory's initial subscribed share capital shall not be less than the total subscription amount. 50% of the share capital, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank was officially established.
On December 31, the Philippine ambassador to China, Biario, signed the Agreement on Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in Beijing as a plenipotentiary of the government. At this point, 57 intentional founding members of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank have all signed the Agreement on Asian Infrastructure Investment Banking.
On January 16, 2016, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank officially opened its doors in Beijing. Chinese President Xi Jinping attended the opening ceremony and delivered a speech, emphasizing that through the joint efforts of all member states, the AIIB will surely become a professional, efficient and clean 21st-century new multilateral The Development Bank has become a new platform for building a community of human destiny, making new contributions to the development and prosperity of Asia and the world, and adding new strength to improving global economic governance. On the same day, the Inauguration Conference of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Banking Council was held in Beijing. The meeting elected Lou Jiwei, Minister of Finance of the PRC as Chairman of the Board of the Asian Investment Bank, and Indonesian Finance Minister Ban Bronzo Negro and State Secretary of the German Ministry of Finance Thomas. Stephen is the deputy chairman of the council; Mr. Jin Liqun is elected as the first president of the AIIB. The meeting reviewed and adopted the resolutions of the council's rules of procedure, the headquarters agreement, the time and place of the first annual council meeting, and so on.
The official establishment and opening of the AIIB will effectively increase investment in infrastructure in the Asian region, promote the process of regional interconnection and economic integration, and will also help improve the investment environment of Asian developing member countries, create job opportunities, and enhance the medium and long-term development potential. Economic growth in Asia and the world has brought about positive boost. It is of great significance to the reform of the global economic governance system, conforms to the trend of adjustment and evolution of the world economic structure, and helps to promote the development of a global economic governance system in a more just, reasonable, and effective direction. .
V. Revision of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law
With the rapid economic and social development, especially the rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles, the atmospheric pollution in China is undergoing a transition from soot to motor vehicle exhaust. Regional atmospheric environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. Heavy pollution such as smog has become more frequent. The current law has been Can not adapt to the needs of the new situation. The current Law on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution was enacted in 1987 and was revised twice in 1995 and 2000.
On August 29, 2015, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution was revised and passed at the 16th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress, and the amended Air Pollution Prevention Act came into force on January 1, 2016. . This â€œAir Pollution Prevention Lawâ€, which is called â€œthe strictest in historyâ€, has been extended from the pre-revised chapters 66 to the current chapter 129, not only in the number of laws but also in almost all existing laws. Made a change.
The revised Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law not only realizes the convergence with the newly revised Environmental Protection Law, but also translates the effective policies in the â€œTen Articles of the Atmosphereâ€ into a legal system. In addition to the general principles, legal responsibilities and Air pollution control standards and time-limited compliance planning, supervision and management of air pollution prevention and control, air pollution prevention and control measures, joint prevention and control of air pollution in key areas, and heavy pollution weather response have been stipulated.
Objective of the legislation: To build ecological civilization, safeguard public health, improve the quality of the atmospheric environment and promote the sustainable development of the economy and society as targets, strengthen the responsibilities of local governments and strengthen the supervision of local governments. At the same time, based on the principle of treating both symptoms and problems, we not only formulate strict control measures, but also adhere to source control and planning, and fundamentally solve the problem of air pollution from the perspective of promoting the transformation of economic development methods, optimizing the industrial structure, and adjusting the energy structure.
Total pollutant control and time limit compliance system: To prevent and control atmospheric pollution, aiming at improving air quality, implement a total pollutant control system, implement key pollutant emission rights trading, and strengthen the use of coal, industrial, motor vehicles, and ships. The comprehensive prevention and control of atmospheric pollution such as dust, agriculture, etc., will include substances and behaviors such as volatile organic compounds and life-related emissions into the scope of supervision, and encourage the development of clean energy sources and the priority of integration. The system of restricting compliance with standards was implemented, and the time-limited compliance program was made public to the public. The government reported to the people's congress at the same level each year the implementation of the time-limited plan and was also made public.
The dynamic regulation of the atmosphere: The State shall encourage and support scientific research on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, and conduct analyses of the sources of atmospheric pollution and their changing trends.
Formulate a series of environmental standards: Requirements for the development of quality standards including atmospheric environmental quality standards, air pollutant discharge standards, coal-fired, fuel oil, petroleum coke, biomass fuels, paints and other products containing volatile organics, fireworks, and boilers.
The joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in key regions: The environmental protection department has designated key areas for prevention and control, determined to lead local governments, held joint meetings on a regular basis, unified planning, unified standards, unified monitoring, unified prevention and control, information sharing, and joint law enforcement on particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. , Nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and other atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases to implement coordinated control. The new construction, reconstruction and expansion of coal projects in key areas will be replaced by equal or reduced amounts of coal.
Response to heavy pollution weather: For heavy pollution weather management measures, it is required to establish a monitoring and early warning mechanism for heavy pollution weather, local governments make emergency plans, start emergency plans according to the level of early warning, and implement production suspension, production restriction, restrictions, igniting, and stop construction. , Stop open burning, stop school outdoor activities and other emergency measures, and encourage the driver of the motor vehicle to extinguish the engine without affecting the passage of the road and requiring more than 3 minutes of parking.
Target responsibility system, interview system, and evaluation system: In order to achieve the goal of improving air quality, all three systems are in place, and local governments are urged to be responsible for the local air quality, and they are required to make public the results of the assessment. At the same time, it has increased the penalties for air pollution violations. For fraudulent monitoring data, it is necessary not only to confiscate the illegal income, but also impose a fine of more than 100,000 yuan but less than 500,000 yuan, and may cancel the inspection qualification.
The revised Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law aims to improve the quality of the atmospheric environment, strengthens the responsibility of local governments, and strengthens the supervision of local governments. At the same time, from the perspective of maintaining governance at the source, we must change the mode of economic development, optimize the industrial structure, and adjust The energy structure has improved the relevant system. The main line is clearer, the emphasis is more prominent, the content is more complete, the management and control measures are more rigorous, and the public participation is more open. This reflects the new requirements of the central government for ecological civilization construction and environmental protection, and it has responded to the publicâ€™s new expectations for improving the quality of the environment and strengthening the atmosphere. Pollution prevention and control work provides a powerful legal weapon.
VI. The State Council promulgated the "Water Pollution Prevention Action Plan"
Water environmental protection has a Bearing on the vital interests of the people and it is a matter of building a well-to-do society in an all-round way. It is related to the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream by the Chinese nation. At present, problems such as poor water environment quality, heavy water ecological damage, and numerous hidden environmental problems are very prominent in some areas of our country, affecting and harming the health of the people and are not conducive to the sustained economic and social development. In order to effectively increase the prevention and control of water pollution and ensure national water security, on April 2, 2015, the State Council issued the "Water Pollution Prevention Action Plan," a total of 10, 35, 76, and 238 specific measures, both current and future. A guide to the national water pollution prevention and control work in a period.
The Water Pollution Prevention Action Plan sets out the general requirements for the work: to fully implement the Party's spirit of the 18th and 18th sessions of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenary Sessions, vigorously promote the construction of ecological civilization, and improve the quality of the water environment as the core.æŒ‰ç…§â€œèŠ‚æ°´ä¼˜å…ˆã€ç©ºé—´å‡è¡¡ã€ç³»ç»Ÿæ²»ç†ã€ä¸¤æ‰‹å‘åŠ›â€åŽŸåˆ™ï¼Œè´¯å½»â€œå®‰å…¨ã€æ¸…æ´ã€å¥åº·â€æ–¹é’ˆï¼Œå¼ºåŒ–æºå¤´æŽ§åˆ¶ï¼Œæ°´é™†ç»Ÿç¹ã€æ²³æµ·å…¼é¡¾ï¼Œå¯¹æ±Ÿæ²³æ¹–æµ·å®žæ–½åˆ†æµåŸŸã€åˆ†åŒºåŸŸã€åˆ†é˜¶æ®µç§‘å¦æ²»ç†ï¼Œç³»ç»ŸæŽ¨è¿›æ°´æ±¡æŸ“é˜²æ²»ã€æ°´ç”Ÿæ€ä¿æŠ¤å’Œæ°´èµ„æºç®¡ç†ã€‚åšæŒæ”¿åºœå¸‚åœºååŒï¼Œæ³¨é‡æ”¹é©åˆ›æ–°ï¼›åšæŒå…¨é¢ä¾æ³•æŽ¨è¿›ï¼Œå®žè¡Œæœ€ä¸¥æ ¼çŽ¯ä¿åˆ¶åº¦ï¼›åšæŒè½å®žå„æ–¹è´£ä»»ï¼Œä¸¥æ ¼è€ƒæ ¸é—®è´£ï¼›åšæŒå…¨æ°‘å‚ä¸Žï¼ŒæŽ¨åŠ¨èŠ‚æ°´æ´æ°´äººäººæœ‰è´£ï¼Œå½¢æˆâ€œæ”¿åºœç»Ÿé¢†ã€ä¼ä¸šæ–½æ²»ã€å¸‚åœºé©±åŠ¨ã€å…¬ä¼—å‚ä¸Žâ€çš„æ°´æ±¡æŸ“é˜²æ²»æ–°æœºåˆ¶ï¼Œå®žçŽ°çŽ¯å¢ƒæ•ˆç›Šã€ç»æµŽæ•ˆç›Šä¸Žç¤¾ä¼šæ•ˆç›Šå¤šèµ¢ï¼Œä¸ºå»ºè®¾â€œè“å¤©å¸¸åœ¨ã€é’å±±å¸¸åœ¨ã€ç»¿æ°´å¸¸åœ¨â€çš„ç¾Žä¸½ä¸å›½è€Œå¥‹æ–—ã€‚
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Speed sensors are machines used to detect the speed of a transport vehicle.
Speed sensors are machines used to detect the speed of a transport vehicle.
Speed Sensor,Wheel Speed Sensor,Transmission Speed Sensor,Abs Speed Sensor
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